MR for PO1
Chapter 6
-Safety and Survival-

Chapter 6 covers safety and mishap prevention. Respiratory protection, heat stress, sight conservation, tag out log, and survival situations.

• Mishaps are unplanned events. Proper safety knowledge and corrective actions can prevent the unplanned mishap Since people cause mishaps, such preventative actions must be directed at individuals. Investigate each mishap no matter how minor, to determine its cause.

• As a senior petty officer your task is to train personnel to recognize and understand mishap causes and how to prevent them.

• Division Safety Petty Officer One of your primary responsibilities is to train each person in your division to notice violations. Also must increase your own safety awareness. In addition you also maintain records of safety training within your division. As a division safety officer you must help conduct safety investigations as directed as a technical advisor about mishap prevention within your division.

Safety Information

• The following manual and instructions will help guide you in making your duty station a safer place to work:
- Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program manual OPNAV-INST 5100-23B
- NAVOSH Manual for Forces Afloat 5100.19B Provides general shipboard safety precautions.
- Standard Organization and Regulations of the US Navy Chapter 7, OPNAVINST 3120.32B Outlines the safety program and the safety organization.

• Mishap Prevention Education & Training- remember, One person cannot ensure safe working conditions. An all-hands effort is required to achieve mishap-free working conditions.

• Safety Observations: you can use three kinds of safety observations: Incidental, Deliberate, and Planned

• Incidental Safety Observations- This occurs when you notice safety hazards without deliberately taking time to look for them. You generally notice them as you go from place to place during your daily routine.

• Deliberate Safety Observations This is when you deliberately observe your surroundings for safety violations. You intentionally pause in whatever you are doing, to see if a person does some part of a job safely. You watch strictly from a safety standpoint

• Planned Safety Observations When you deliberately schedule a time to watch for safety violations by a person performing a specific job. It is designed to check regularly on how safely all hazardous jobs are performed.

• To do a good job of detecting unsafe practices, you need to use all three types of safety observations.

• Job Safety Analysis- JSA is the study of a job to 1) Identify possible hazards or potential mishaps and 2) to develop solutions to eliminate, nullify, or prevent them.

• Fill out a workplace Monitoring Plan OPNAV 5100/14 when making safety observations and your job analyses, or make your own appropriate form.

• MAA/Safety Force This is another vital link in the safety program. They act as roving inspectors for unsafe working practices.

• The best safety enforcement is a self-policing safety program

• Personnel must report to their supervisor all observed workplace hazards injuries, occupational illnesses, or property damage resulting from accident.

• Industrial Equipment- Ensure personnel have a practical knowledge on all equipment before they are allowed to operate or repair that equipment.

• Pneumatic Tools- Only allow authorized and trained personnel to operate pneumatic tools. Ensure safety equipment is worn. Do not allow personnel with arthritis, neuritis, or circulatory diseases to use and vibrating equipment or tools.

• Hazardous Materials Review page 6-8 for a list of some hazardous materials that are prohibited from ships (except if authorized in medical, pharmacies, chemical labs, and cargo spaces.)

• Asbestos insulation cannot be removed except for an emergency as approved by the commanding officer.

• Asbestos rip out teams will consist of three qualified persons, including one supervisor each member will wear a continuous-flow air line respirator with full faceplate. For more info see NSTM Chapter 635.

• Respiratory Protection-The commanding officer of each unit designates a program manager for respiratory protection, usually the units safety officer or gas free engineering officer.

• Use the oxygen breathing apparatus (OBA) only in emergency situations. Never use a surgical mask in place of a filter respirator.

• Cartridge Color-Coding:
Here is a list of some of the cartridge color codes. (see page 6-13 for more info)
Black…………Organic Vapors
Green…………Ammonia Gas
Purple……….Radioactive materials except tritium and noble gases.

• Hearing conservation- if your personnel must work in a hazardous noise areas or with equipment that produces sound levels greater than 84 db, hearing protection must be worn. If sound levels are greater than 104 db double hearing protection must be worn.

• Heat Stress-Conduct a heat stress survey when the watch or work station’s dry bulb temperature exceeds 100 degrees F.

• Sight Conservation- Personnel must wear eye protection while performing any eye-hazardous operations. To establish an effective sight conservation program, the safety officer must identify eye-hazardous areas and post appropriate warning signs.

• The Navy considers any person with vision in one eye of 20/200 or worse to be visually impaired. You cannot assign anyone with a visual impairment to duties that present a hazard to their remaining eye. Make certain these personnel wear eye protection at all times, regardless of their job assignment or work station.

• OPNAVINST 3120.32 governs the Navy’s equipment tag-out bill.

• The purpose of the equipment tag out bill is:
- To provide a safe procedure for personnel to prevent the improper use of a component, system, or equipment.
- To provide a safe procedure for personnel to use when operating an instrument that is unreliable. This procedure uses labels instead of tags (ie, “out of calibration”)
- To provide separate safe procedures for personnel to accomplish PMS.

• The CO must ensure that all personnel know and comply with all applicable safety procedures of the tag-out system.

• The OOD keeps track of the systems being tagged out and the condition of the readiness of the ship.

• Engineering officer of the Watch (EOOW) keeps up with the status of the engineering plant and how the tag-out bill effects the readiness of the plant.

• Authorizing Officer signs the final authorization placing the equipment/system off line for repairs or maintenance. • Person attaching the tag: The person who attaches the tag (along with the person who will second check the tag) can make or break the tag-out system. The person hanging the tag actually shuts a valve or secures a switch that takes a piece of equipment off line for repairs or maintenance.

• The person checking the tag is also very important in the tag-out procedure. This process is called second-checking. The second checker examines the tag to ensure they are where they are supposed to be and the valve or switches are in the correct position.

• Tags, labels, and logs are used in the tag-out system to ensure personal safety and equipment from being damaged.

• Danger- Red tags: means a certain danger exists if the system status is changed.

• Caution-Yellow tags: these tags usually have specific instructions about the use of the equipment.

• The two labels that are associated with the tag out system are:
- Out of commission (RED): used to identify instruments that give incorrect measurements because they are unreliable.
- Out of Calibration (ORANGE): used on gauges and devices when their calibration is overdue.

• The number of tag-out logs depends on the size of the ship

• The tag-out log is used to control the entire procedure.

• A copy of the main instruction and any other amplifying directives are found in the front of the tag-out log.

• The tag-out log has three parts:
- main instructions
- DANGER/CAUTION tag out index and a record of audits
- CLEARED DANGER/CAUTION tag-out record.


• A normal reaction to the basic human fear can be very useful. When you become afraid your body becomes more alert, you hear better and see better.

• The key to survival is your attitude

• Survival requires every person to give 100% toward group effort.

• Navy Regulations and article IV of the Code of Conduct give the senior person in a survival situation the authority to take charge.

• Survival ashore becomes a personal struggle between the environment and the specific qualities people bring to the situation.

• Evasion- if you are captured, you have the problem of surviving the Prisoner-Of-War (POW) camp.

• There are two methods that the enemy uses to detect your presence:
1. Observation: by specially trained and equipped observation teams. They can use detection devices, such as binoculars, telescopes, and sound detection equipment.
2. The use of dogs, foot patrols, and mechanized units to patrol a given area.

• Camouflage is a major evasion tactic used to hide an object, personnel, or equipment.

• If you are in charge of a large group hiding from the enemy, break your group into many small groups. Obviously small groups are easier to conceal.

• Conceal your self when moving from place to place. Use screens, backgrounds, and shadows to the fullest advantage.

• Under favorable conditions enemy observers can see as far as 100 yards in the open woods

• Prisoner-Of-War camp (POW) The Code of Conduct directs that you begin planning your escape the minute you are taken prisoner.

• While you are a POW, never accept special favors. Never help the enemy by identifying fellow prisoners who may have valuable knowledge.

• If the senior officer or noncommissioned officer is incapacitated or unable to command for any reason, the next senior person will assume command

• Survival at Sea- The senior person in an at-sea survival situation will take charge of the situation and remain calm. You will greatly increase your chances of survival by talking to your people and keeping their morale up. Sing, talk, tell jokes, tell stories, whatever it takes. Stick together and use group support.

• Know each other’s special skills so you can utilize each person to the greatest benefit of the group.

• Emphasize that the group will not leave the injured behind

• Basic Elements of Survival:
Use the acronym S-U-R-V-I-V-A-L
Size up the situation
Undue haste makes waste
Remember where you are
Vanquish fear and panic
Improvise (adapt, overcome)
Value living
Act like the natives (fit in)
Learn basic skills

• If you ever find yourself in a survival situation remember: Never give up hope

• Review MR for PO1 Chapter 6

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