Chapter 20
-Sea Power-

Chapter 20, Sea Power, explains the concept of sea power and the Navy wartime and peacetime missions.

· Sea Power: A nation's ability to protect its political, economic, and military interests by controlling the seas.

· The principal operational components of our national sea power are:
1. Naval Power
2. Ocean Science
3. Ocean Industry
4. Ocean Commerce

· Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, USN was the first person to use the term sea power. In 1890, he published the book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1600-1783.

· Because of the emerging effects of aircraft, aircraft carriers, and radar, ships fought fewer battles within sight of each other.

· Nations use the seas for their lifeline for survival. Those that have failed in commerce have also failed as world powers.

· The U.S. may not be as independent as some people think. We must import most of out raw materials. We import no fewer than 77 resources to maintain our present economy. For example we import 85% of the maganese. We import 90% of columbite to make nuclear reactors, stainless steel, rockets and missiles, we only have about 11 minerals that we need within our borders.

· The U.S. also uses sea power to protect is 4 territories overseas such as:
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands
Northern Marianas

· In recent years we have exercised control of the sea-lanes in the Middle East. During the 1987-1989 "tanker wars", the U.S. Navy protected mechant ships flying the U.S. flag.

· With the threat of World War II, pending congress enacted the Merchant Marine Act of 1936.

· The U.S. mass produced more than 6000 merchant ships during World War II.

· The Coast Guard is the oldest, continuous sea going service. It was set up in 1790 as the United States Revenue Marine.

· In the mid-1800's congress set up the U.S. Lifesaving Service consisting of stations scattered along the U.S. coasts. Shortly after the turn of the century the Lifesaving Service and the Revenue Cutter Service merged to form the U.S. Coast Guard. That merger provided the Coast Guard with its traditional image – the lifesavers.

· The Coast Guard maintains nearly 50,000 navigational aids.

· In 1967 the Coast Guard became part of the Department of Transportation. It recently became part of Home Land Security. In times of war, the Coast Guard operates under the direction of the CNO.

· U.S. Military Sealift Command (MSC) was set up in 1949. It is an operating agency within the Dept. of Defense. (DoD)

· The peacetime mission of the MSC is to support ships at sea by providing fuel and other essential supplies.

· The wartime mission of the MSC is to move troops, equipment, and other supplies as well as provide replenishment to ships underway.

·Review BMR Chapter 20

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