Chapter Fourteen
-First Aid-

This chapter covers basic first aid, personal hygiene, and sexually transmitted diseases.

• The objectives of first aid are:
- save life
- prevent further injury
- limit infection

• In administering first aid, you have three primary tasks:
- maintain breathing
- stop bleeding/maintain circulation
- prevent or treat for shock.

• To be effective, CPR has to be started within 4 minutes of the onset of cardiac arrest.

• In CPR, one rescuer performs 15 compressions to 2 ventilations (breaths){15 to 2}

• Rescue breathing is perormed when you have a pulse but the subject is not breathing. Ventilations should be 12 to 15 per minute or one breath every five seconds.

• Mouth to nose is effective when the victim has extensive facial or dental injuries or is very young.

• Two rescuer CPR is 5 compressions to 1 ventilation. {5 to 1}.

• For hand placement for cardiac compressions keep the heel of hand above the tip of the sternum.

• Chest should compress 1 1/2 to 2 inches when doing cardiac compressions.

• Airway blockage: The first indication is the victim's inability to speak.

• The first action you take is to clear the mouth of any food particles or foreign objects.

• Refer to page 14-7 for further procedures.

• The average adult body contains 5 quarts of blood (4.75 liters). One pint of blood can usually be lost without harmful effects. However, the loss of 2 pints (0.95 liters) will usually cause shock.

• Treating for Shock:
- Symptoms are that the pulse is weak but rapid. Breathing is likely to be shallow, rapid, and irregular. Eyes are usually dialated.
- Remember, seriously injured persons are liekly to develop serious shock, and shock can cause death.
- Start treatment as soon as possible. Keep victim warm enough for comfort and lying down. Keep victim calm and assure that expert medical help will soon be there. Raise feet about 12 inches.

• Capillary: Blood from capillaries is usually brick red in color and the blood oozes out slowly.

• Vein: Blood from veins is usually dark red and the blood will escape in a steady, even flow.

• Artery: Artery cuts near the surface will gush out in spurts that are synchronized with the heartbeat. Deep artery cuts will be a steady stream and is usually bright red in color.

• The best way to control serious bleeding:
1. direct pressure
2. pressure points
3. constricting band (tourniquet) as last resort. Once applied it should only be released by medical personnel. Never cover a restricting band, mark the victim's forehead with a "T" and note the time the band was applied, or use a medical tag attached to the wrist.

• Burns
1st – the mildest (ie. Mild sunburn)
2nd – leaves a blister
3rd – the worst, skin is destroyed.
If the burn is less than 20% immerse in cold water. More than 20%, apply sterile dry bandage. When treating burns you should never apply petrolatum gauze, break blisters, apply butter, lard, or vaseline.

• Know the difference between heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Heat exhaustion:
1. moist and clammy skin, ashen gray
2. pupils dilated
3. normal or subnormal temperature.
It is commonly caused by working or exercising in hot spaces. First aid: loosen clothing, get victim to cool area.

Heat Stroke (the most serious):
1. dry hot skin
2. pupils constricted
3. very high body temperature
heat stroke has a 20% mortality rate. First aid: reduce body temperature immediately.

• Fractures:
Closed fracture: the bone is broken but the skin remains intact. (most common fracture)
Open fracture: The broken bone will protrude from the skin.

• Sprains: Is an injury to the ligament and soft tissues the support a joint.

• Strain: is caused by forcible over stretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon.

•First aid for either sprains or strains is ice pack for 24 to 48 hours, and keep affected area elevated. Apply moist/heat after ice treatment is complete (15 to 30 min.)

• Suicide: Most suicide victims in the Navy are enlisted males between 17-24 in the paygrades E-1 to E-6.

• Sexually transmitted diseases:
• If syphilis is untreated the disease can cause mental illness, blindness, heart disease, or even death.

• If Gonorrhea goes untreated it can cause you to become sterile (male or female).

• Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome was first reported in the United States in mid 1981. It is the number one priority of the US Public Health Service. AIDS can be spread by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood to blood contact, and less commonly, transfusions.

• Review BMR Chapter 14

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