BMRChapter 13 covers CBR in depth.
The primary purpose of biological and chemical attacks is the mass casualties of personnel, livestock, or crops.
US national policy prohibits our being the first nation to use chemical agents against an attacking nation.
The US will not use biological agents under any circumstances.
Chemical Warfare (CW) agents can kill or disable personnel by affecting the blood, nerves, eyes, skin, lungs, or stomach.
Biological warfare (BW) operation agents include microorganisms, fungi, toxins, and microtoxins to cause diseases that will kill or produce other casualties.
To be most effective, biological weapons are normally delivered by aerosol.
Chemical agents can be placed in projectiles or missiles.
Nuclear weapons can be launched in almost any manner by land, sea, or air units.
Broadly speaking, there are two types of antipersonnel agents: casualty and incapacitating.
Check page 13-2, table 13-1 for characteristics of selected CW agents.
Sarin and VX are types of nerve agents.
Some of the symptoms of nerve poisoning are: stomach cramps, sudden headache, nausea, wheezing, and convulsions.
Casualty CW agents can cause death or severely incapacitate personnel for long periods of time.
Incapacitating CW agents temporarily disable personnel but do not create permanent injury.
(2-PAM CI) atropine and pralidoxime chloride are self injections used as the antidote for a nerve agent.
Blister agents act on the eyes, mucous membranes, lungs, and skin.
Blister agents include mustard vapors and mustard liquids.
Muster agents burn and blister the skin, especially moist areas such as the neck, genitals, groin, armpits, bends of knees and elbows. Muster agents also damage the respiratory tract when inhaled.
Personnel who are suspected of contamination from muster agents in the eyes must seek overhead shelter and flush their eyes with potable (drinkable) water.
Blood agents inhibit the action of an enzyme responsible for transferring oxygen from the blood to the cells of the body.
High concentrations of blood agents cause labored breathing within a few seconds, violent convulsions, followed by cessation (stoppage) of breathing.
See page 13-5 for a chart of symptoms for blood agent exposure.
Choking agents in low concentration effect the respiratory system to the point that the lungs fill with fluid.
See page 13-15 for symptoms for tear agents and vomiting agents.
Riot control agents (RCAs) are classified as either tear agents or vomiting agents.
RCAs cause temporary misery and harassment.
Biological warfare(BW) is the intentional use of living organisms, toxins, and microtoxins to disable or destroy people and domestic animals, damage crops, or deteriorate supplies.
Animals, insects, and rodents can be used as carriers to spread BW agents.
Some BW agents include anthrax, typhoid fever, cholera, plaugue, tularemia, botulinum toxin, and inluenza.
Early stages of biological disease include the general symptoms of fever, malaise, and inflammation.
See page 13-7 for characteristics for selected BW agents.
Nuclear warfare: There are four types of nuclear blast.
High altitude blast takes place above 100,000 feet.
Air blast is when the fireball is below 1000,000 feet but doesnt touch the earths surface.
Surface Blast is when the fireball touches the earths surface.
Subsurface (underwater) burst: A fireball is formed (smaller fireball than a surface blast), and this explosion creates a large bubble (cavity) that rises to the surface where it expels steam, gas, and debris into the air.
There are two types of nuclear radiation: initial and residual.
Nuclear weapons produce explosions of great force. Their effects are divided into three categories:
- Blast waves or shockwaves
The intense flash of light from a nuclear blast can cause flash blindness. Normally this is only temporary, usually the eyes can recover in about 15 minutes in daytime and 45 minutes at night.
Nuclear radiation hazards consist of four types.
- Alfa: little skin-penetrating power.
- Beta: can present a hazard if the particles enter the skin.
- Gamma: Rays are pure energy, very difficult to stop. They can easily penetrate the body.
- Neutrons: have the greatest penetrating power.
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) can cause considerable damage to tactical systems, including electrical and electronic systems, sonar, radar, and communications.
Transient Radiation effects on electronics (TREE) occurs in electronics systems as a result of exposure to gamma or neutron radiation.
Survey teams go through the ship to determine the extent and location of any contamination after a CW, BW, or nuclear attack. A survey team consists of a minimum of three people: a monitor, a recorder, and a messenger. The monitor is in charge of the party.
CBR contamination markers is a standard system and is used to mark areas contaminated by CW, BW, or nuclear agents. Look at figure 13-16 page 13-15. This page shows CBR contamination markers. The markers are triangular in shape. They re 11 ½ inches with 8 inch sides. Each type of contamination is readily identified by the color of the marker. Also, they are labeled:
Dose rate is expressed in roentgens (gamma ray measurement only)
The DT 60/PD is a nonself-reading gamma radiation device. Its range is 0-600 roentgens.
NOTE: You need a CP-95 to actually read a DT 60. You can see a DT-60/PD page 13-16 figure 13-8.
For a CW attack a M256A1 is a special detection kit that uses vapor sample detection and the M8 & M9 liquid chemical agent paper. Also draeger tubes are used to detect the presence of phosgene gas.
The MCU-2/P Protective Mask is the most important piece of protective equipment against a CBR attack.
The mask serves two functions: 1. It filters the air, removing particles of dust that could be contaminated.
2. It purifies the air of many poisonous gases.
The MCU-2/P mask is available in three sizes.
To determine the correct size measure the length of your face. (tip of chin to nasal root depression.
The MCU- 2/P mask uses a single filter canister, designated C2.
Canisters are good for one attack of blood agent, after which the must be replaced. Canisters are good for 30 days following exposure to other chemical agents, as long as the 60 day limit after removal of the packaging seal is not exceeded.
You should be able to don you mask within 10 seconds.
Some features of the MCU-2/P:
- two voice emitters
- a drinking tube
- flexible lens
- one canister can go on either side
The mask can be worn over approved mask-compatible glasses.
Basically, any clothing or coverall that covers the body can provide a degree of protection from CBR contaminants.
Chemical-protective overgarment (CPO suit) consists of two pieces, a smock and trousers.
The CPO suit has a shelf life of 5 years if left unopened.
Once removed from its protective envelope, it has a shelf life of 14 days in a nonchemical environment.
Once exposed to chemical contamination, the CPO suit provides 6 hours of continuous protection, after which it should be discarded.
Wet-weather clothing is often described as impermeable or rubberized clothing.
Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) is a means of established levels of readiness. MOPP is a flexible system of protection against chemical agents and is used in chemical warfare defense to help accomplish a mission.
There are four levels of MOPP, from Level 1, the least protection to Level 4, the most protection.
- MOPP Level-1: protective equipment and medical supply items are issued. Set readiness Condition III and material condition Yoke, if not already set.
- MOPP Level- 2: Protective mask and carrier are worn on the person. Set Zebra (modified)
- MOPP Level- 3: Install new filter canisters on protective masks. Don CPO suits, set GQ, set zebra. Activate countermeasures, wash down system intermittently.
- MOPP Level- 4: Don mask, protective gloves, set CIRCLE WILLIAM, activate countermeasures, wash down system .
Decontamination teams usually consist of six people. The monitor will be in charge.
To decontaminate means eliminating the sources of infection. The most effective way is to use a chemical disinfectant.
M291 Decontamination Kit is used to decontaminate skin and selected personnel equipment contaminated with chemical agents. The kit contains six sealed foil packets, enough for three complete skin applications.
The disadvantage an enemy has when using BW agents is that BW agents degrade rapidly when exposed to the environment conditions such as ultraviolet light, radiation, heat, dryness, or humidity.
Never eat food, drink, or smoke after a CBR attack.
Weapons of mass destruction are weapons that can destroy large areas or kill and disable large segments of the population.
Review Chapter 13 BMR.
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